Black smoke is not fuel filters. I believe your Journey has a CAT in it.
Black Smoke is really just an imbalance in the air to fuel ratio - too much fuel to not enough air. This means either too much fuel is being added to the mix or there's not enough oxygen being supplied to burn the fuel. The black smoke is full of particulates that are basically large diesel particles that normally would be burned as fuel. Any way you look at it, a diesel truck emitting black smoke is not going to be getting the optimal fuel mileage it should be getting.
Most common causes of black smoke are faulty injectors, a faulty injector pump, a bad air filter (causing not enough oxygen to be supplied), a bad EGR valve (causing the valves to clog) or even a bad turbocharger. Some of these are easy fixes.